About: Monika Hunjadi

Organisation: European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research

Assistant International and Public Relations

Contributions

Findings of the Con3Post project

The findings of the Con3Post project indicated that immigration of third country national (TCN) workers is driven largely by economic discrepancies and wage disparities between the third countries and EU countries.

The findings of the Con3Post project investigating mobility and posting flows between third countries, EU-sending and EU-receiving countries indicated that immigration of third country national (TCN) workers is driven largely by economic discrepancies and wage disparities between the third countries and EU countries, as well as political and economic instabilities in the third countries. We found that

  • some companies have become quite active in the wider European markets providing services through posting of TCNs, which has in many cases become a business model for profit maximisation;
  • the intersection of the migration and employment regimes may enhance the vulnerabilities of posted TCN workers, who tend not to defy or report their employers, on whom they depend not only for employment but also for the renewal of their work and residence permits in the sending country;
  • despite the mechanisms for control and enforcement of national/EU standards, the vulnerability of TCN posted workers persists due to the cloaking effect of the posting employment characterised by subcontracting, cross-border mobility and temporary service provision.

Read more about the project here

An Economic Outlook to the Republic of Kosovo and the recent impact of COVID-19

Due to its rapid spread the government of the Republic of Kosovo, in accordance with the recommendations of the National Institute of Public Health in Kosovo, and similar to most other countries in the world, starting from March 13, 2020 imposed measures which restricted many economic activities and then restricted the movement of people.

By Muhamet Klinaku, Department of Labour Market, Employment Agency of the Republic of Kosovo

The COVID-19 pandemic which appeared at the end of 2019, first in China and then spread throughout the globe reached Kosovo in March 2020. As a result, and due to its rapid spread the government of the Republic of Kosovo, in accordance with the recommendations of the National Institute of Public Health in Kosovo, and similar to most other countries in the world, starting from March 13, 2020 imposed measures which restricted many economic activities and then restricted the movement of people. Among other measures, all hotel and gastronomy businesses, interurban transport and other businesses that sell specialized goods (textiles, etc.) were closed. As a result, most Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are already affected by the coronavirus in most countries of the world, and Kosovo is not an exception to having economic implications for the country.

Kosovo belongs to the group of upper-middle income countries group. Similar to the average growth trend in the respective group of countries, Kosovo has experienced constant growth rates over the past years. Figure 1 reveals that between 2010 and 2019 average real GDP growth was around 6%, varying between 3% and 9% over the years.

GDP growth rates have to some degree translated into increased employment opportunities and decreased unemployment throughout the years, as one of main economic issues that is challenging the Kosovo economy. According to the Kosovo Agency of Statistics, shown in Figure 2, labour force participation in the working age population has increased from 37.6% in 2015 to 40.5% in 2019, reflecting a decreasing rate of inactive people in the working age population.

In terms of women participation in employment, data reveal a persistently large degree of disadvantaging women in the labour market (see Figure 3).The same trend has followed in terms of employment rate (employed people in the total of the working age population) which has grown from 25.2% to 30.1% between 2015 and 2019. More importantly, the rate of unemployed people has decreased in the respective period, falling from 32.9% in 2015 to 25.7% in 2019. Despite small variations across the annual rates, data suggest a solid positive economic trend before the COVID-19 outbreak.

Youth unemployment also showed a decreasing trend (see Figure 4), reducing from 57.7% in 2015 to 49.4% in 2019. On the other hand, share of vulnerable groups in total employment has decreased from 22.8% to 18.8% between 2015 and 2019, which suggests for an average growing trend of more quality and decent work opportunities in the economy.

However, COVID-19 pandemic is continuing to affect the economy beyond initial expectations, so the situation remains uncertain. The Kosovo Government has estimated a GDP contraction of around 3% in 2020, while World Bank latest estimations suggests that it may be as high as 8.8%. The large decrease is due to worsening of the economic indicators, which have deteriorated as compared to initial estimations. However, World Bank outlook projections beyond 2020 are positive, suggesting for a GDP growth of over 3% in 2021 and over 4% in 2022. About 80 percent of Kosovo travel service exports are driven by Kosovar diaspora, whose arrivals in bigger numbers are expected to happen as soon as travel measures will be lifted, anticipated to influence spending and investment (World Bank Report, 2020).Despite a positive outlook that prevailed until 2019, COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in 2020, followed with restrictive policies by the government, has temporary reversed the growth trend. It has negatively affected economic activities, with stronger impact on the private sector, both in terms of income and jobs. Working hours have been reduced and many businesses offered their employees leaves of absence without pay (World Bank Business Pulse Survey, 2020). Some preliminary studies suggest that the number of unemployed has increased dramatically during the second quarter of 2020, The Kosovo Employment Agency has recorded around 80,000 additional job seekers[1].

[1] Source: Employment Agency of Republic of Kosovo , Report for 2020.

Report: Coping with COVID-19: mapping education and training responses to the health crisis in ETF partner countries

Report: Coping with COVID-19: mapping education and training responses to the health crisis in ETF partner countries by the European Training Foundation

This report focuses on how 27 countries neighbouring the European Union (EU) are coping with [Coronavirus Disease 2019] COVID-19 in the field of education and training, as part of the #learningconnects campaign. The report includes information about countries from South Eastern Europe and Turkey, the Eastern Partnership and Russia, the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean, and Central Asia on: (1) support for teachers and trainers through multiple channels; (2) access to internet and outreach measures considering equality, opportunities and digital literacy; (3) decisions regarding examinations, certification and validation; (4) school autonomy in organising digital and online learning; and (5) addressing vocational education and training beyond general education subjects. Read more

Online Article: The ‘refugee crisis’ and its transformative impact on EU-Western Balkans relations

Online Article: The ‘refugee crisis’ and its transformative impact on EU-Western Balkans relations by Webb 

This article explores to what extent the securitisation of the refugee crisis led to policy changes and the consequence of these changes on EU relations with the countries of North Macedonia and Serbia. Read more

28/01/21: Danube Governance Conference – SAVE THE DATE!

28/01/2021, 9:00 – 17:00 (CET) Online event: Danube Governance Conference: “Towards European integration with the SDGs” – SAVE THE DATE!

The Danube Governance Conference: Towards European integration with the SDGs is the final event of the program Building Administrative Capacities in the Danube Region (BACID).

It will gather stakeholders to discuss the topics identified as priorities in improving governance in the countries of the Western Balkans and the Republic of Moldova on their way towards European integration and how the Sustainable Development Goals support this process. This event will bring together partners from public institutions, think tanks and civil society organizations from the whole Danube Region, as well as representatives of the EU and international organizations that are supporting European integration and public administration reforms in the Western Balkans and the Republic of Moldova. Read more

Report: Posting of Third Country Nationals – A comparative study

Report: Posting of Third Country Nationals – A comparative study by Cukut Krilić at al.

The study compares the findings from three Con3Post regional reports on mobility and posting flows between EU-sending, EU-receiving and third countries, namely Slovenia, Austria and Bosnia and Herzegovina; Italy, Belgium, Tunisia and Morocco; and Poland, Finland, Estonia and Ukraine. The study explores the main characteristics of the trend of posting of third country nationals (TCN) to work in the EU construction sector. Read more

Childcare in the Western Balkans and Eastern Europe

The European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research conducted research on the situation of children at risk of losing the parental care and children that have lost the parental care in Albania, North Macedonia, Armenia, Belarus and Ukraine.

Veronica Sandu, European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research

From May to December 2020 the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research conducted research on the situation of children at risk of losing the parental care and children that have lost the parental care in five countries from Western Balkans and Eastern Europe region: Albania and North Macedonia, Armenia, Belarus and Ukraine. The research was part of a broader report done in cooperation with SOS Children’s Villages Worldwide Hermann-Gmeiner Fonds Deutschland and SOS Children’s Villages National Associations in the respective countries.

The analysis was done based on the review of legislation, policy reports and strategic documents, childcare national and regional reports, and other relevant documents. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRDP) country concluding observations have been consulted as part of the desk review. National statistics on vulnerable children were collected by referring to the national and international data sets and reports. In addition, key childcare stakeholders in depth interviews have been done in all countries.

There are many causes of risk for children to lose parental care and to be institutionalised. These risks can be related to: individual attributes (e.g., disability, skills, gender, sexual orientation, etc.); family circumstances (e.g., migration, poverty, stigma, language, ethnicity, geographic area, etc.); circumstances related to a specific risk (e.g., abduction, trafficking, homelessness, domestic violence, juvenile crimes, etc.); and humanitarian situations (displacement, armed conflicts, social breakdown, etc.).

About 11 million children live in the 5 selected countries, about 3 million of them live below the national poverty line, and about 210 thousand children are children with disabilities. The institutional care remains the main form of care in almost all countries. In total, in the region, about 100,000 children receive care in large residential facilities and 78,000 children receive care in some sort of family-based type of care service. The share of children receiving care in large institutions is almost twice the share of children in family-based care. One exception is Belarus, where many children receive care in their extended families under the guardianship/tutorship type of care.

The five countries make significant efforts to develop the family-based care as part of a broader de-institutionalization (De-I) reform or in parallel to improving the quality of residential care. The most common type of family-based care is the guardianship/tutorship care followed by foster care. Both of these services though are developed unevenly in terms of child vulnerability (very few foster care services are available for children with disabilities, for babies, for children with behavioural problems). All countries lack specialised foster care for emergency situations, and for appropriate care of children with special needs. Adoption is limited in all countries, with the exception of Belarus, where the number of adopted children is close to that of children placed in foster care.

The childcare systems in all these countries are undergoing major reforms such as the De-I reform, alternative care service development, community-based service development, development of child abandon and prevention programs, and preventions programs for families at risk of being separated from their children. At the same time, various policy gaps are limiting the childcare policy impact. These gaps refer to poor financing of childcare in the region, human resources in the sector not equipped in terms of skills, knowledge and resources to support these reforms, and childcare roles and responsibilities between administrations levels not fully clarified. The public private partnership in care provision is unregulated, and quality monitoring not fully in place.

The research conducted by the European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research will support the Children’s Villages Worldwide Hermann-Gmeiner Fonds Deutschland and SOS Children’s Villages National Associations in policy dialogue, advocacy efforts, internal planning processes to further support the childcare reforms in the 5 selected countries.

Closed (30/12/20) CfP: Welfare state and social policies in the CEE region

The peer-reviewed, open access scientific journal Problemy Polityki Społecznej/Social Policy Issues invites original paper submissions for a special issue to bring together papers exploring a broad array of research questions related to welfare state and social policies in the CEE region.

Journal of Social Policy Issues: Cfp on Special Issue “Welfare state and social policies in the CEE region: past developments, present challenges and prospects for the future”

Deadline: 30 December 2020

University of Warsaw invites to submit original papers to the special issue of Problemy Polityki Społecznej. Social Policy Issues – a peer-reviewed, OPEN ACCESS journal, published by University of Warsaw.

The planned Special Issue “Welfare state and social policies in the CEE region: past developments, present challenges and prospects for the future” aims to bring together papers exploring a broad array of research questions related to welfare state and social policies in the CEE region, that may touch upon past developments, present challenges as well as future prospects. By CEE region we mean a large group of countries including Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czechia, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Ukraine as well as sub-country regions, e.g. east of Germany.

The best paper submitted to this issue will receive an award of 400 euro. Read more